A Perspective on Passive Human Sensing with Bluetooth

Sensors (Basel). 2022 May 5;22(9):3523. doi: 10.3390/s22093523.

Abstract

Passive human sensing approaches based on the analysis of the radio signals emitted by the most common wireless communication technologies have been steadily gaining momentum during the last decade. In this context, the Bluetooth technology, despite its widespread adoption in mobile and IoT applications, so far has not received all the attention it deserves. However, the introduction of the Bluetooth direction finding feature and the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques to the processing and analysis of the wireless signal for passive human sensing pave the way for novel Bluetooth-based passive human sensing applications, which will leverage Bluetooth Low Energy features, such as low power consumption, noise resilience, wide diffusion, and relatively low deployment cost. This paper provides a reasoned analysis of the data preprocessing and classification techniques proposed in the literature on Bluetooth-based remote passive human sensing, which is supported by a comparison of the reported accuracy results. Building on such results, the paper also identifies and discusses the multiple factors and operating conditions that explain the different accuracy values achieved by the considered techniques, and it draws the main research directions for the near future.

Keywords: Bluetooth; wireless passive human sensing; wireless sensor networks.

MeSH terms

  • Artificial Intelligence*
  • Humans
  • Telemetry / methods
  • Wireless Technology*

Grant support

This research received no external funding.