Immune Repertoire and Advancements in Nanotherapeutics for the Impediment of Severe Steroid Resistant Asthma (SSR)

Int J Nanomedicine. 2022 May 12:17:2121-2138. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S364693. eCollection 2022.


Severe steroid-resistant asthma (SSR) patients do not respond to the corticosteroid therapies due to the heterogeneity, and genome-wide variations. However, there are very limited reports pertinent to the molecular signaling underlying SSR and making pharmacologists, and formulation scientists to identify the effective therapeutic targets in order to produce novel therapies using novel drug delivery systems (NDDS). We have substantially searched literature for the peer-reviewed and published reports delineating the role of glucocorticoid-altered gene expression, and the mechanisms responsible for SSR asthma, and NDDS for treating SSR asthma using public databases PubMed, National Library of Medicine (NLM), google scholar, and medline. Subsequently, we described reports underlying the SSR pathophysiology through several immunological and inflammatory phenotypes. Furthermore, various therapeutic strategies and the role of signaling pathways such as mORC1-STAT3-FGFBP1, NLRP3 inflammasomes, miR-21/PI3K/HDAC2 axis, PI3K were delineated and these can be considered as the therapeutic targets for mitigating the pathophysiology of SSR asthma. Finally, the possibility of nanomedicine-based formulation and their applications in order to enhance the long term retention of several antioxidant and anti-asthmatic drug molecules as a significant therapeutic modality against SSR asthma was described vividly.

Keywords: asthma; inflammation; molecular signaling; nanomedicine; natural products; novel drug delivery systems; steroid resistance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents* / pharmacology
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Asthma* / drug therapy
  • Drug Resistance
  • Humans
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Steroids / therapeutic use
  • United States


  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Steroids

Grants and funding

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81700729).