Detection of pyrethroid resistance mutations and intron variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus mosquitoes from Lao People's Democratic Republic

Med Vet Entomol. 2022 Dec;36(4):424-434. doi: 10.1111/mve.12580. Epub 2022 May 20.


In Lao People's Democratic Republic, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of arboviral diseases such as dengue. As the treatment for these diseases is limited, control of the vectors with the use of pyrethroid insecticides is still essential. However, mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene giving rise to pyrethroid resistance are threatening vector control programs. Here, we analysed both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, which were collected in different districts of Laos (Kaysone Phomvihane, Vangvieng, Saysettha and Xaythany), for vgsc mutations commonly found throughout Asia (S989P, V1016G and F1534C). Sequences of the vgsc gene showed that the F1534C mutation was prevalent in both Aedes species. S989P and V1016G mutations were detected in Ae. aegypti from each site and were always found together. In addition, the mutation T1520I was seen in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from Saysettha district as well as in all Ae. aegypti samples. Thus, mutations in the vgsc gene of Ae. aegypti are prevalent in the four districts studied indicating growing insecticide resistance throughout Laos. Constant monitoring programmes and alternative strategies for controlling Aedes should be utilized in order to prolong the effectiveness of pyrethroids thereby maximizing vector control.

Keywords: Aedes; Kdr; deltamethrin; insecticide resistance; permethrin; pyrethroid; vector control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aedes* / genetics
  • Animals
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics
  • Insecticides* / pharmacology
  • Introns
  • Laos
  • Mosquito Vectors / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Pyrethrins* / pharmacology
  • Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels* / genetics


  • Insecticides
  • Pyrethrins
  • Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels