Single-cell deletion analyses show control of pro-T cell developmental speed and pathways by Tcf7, Spi1, Gata3, Bcl11a, Erg, and Bcl11b

Sci Immunol. 2022 May 20;7(71):eabm1920. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abm1920. Epub 2022 May 20.


As early T cell precursors transition from multipotentiality to T lineage commitment, they change expression of multiple transcription factors. It is unclear whether individual transcription factors directly control choices between T cell identity and some alternative fate or whether these factors mostly affect proliferation or survival during the normal commitment process. Here, we unraveled the impacts of deleting individual transcription factors at two stages in early T cell development, using synchronized in vitro differentiation systems, single-cell RNA-seq with batch indexing, and controlled gene-disruption strategies. First, using a customized method for single-cell CRISPR disruption, we defined how the early-acting transcription factors Bcl11a, Erg, Spi1 (PU.1), Gata3, and Tcf7 (TCF1) function before commitment. The results revealed a kinetic tug of war within individual cells between T cell factors Tcf7 and Gata3 and progenitor factors Spi1 and Bcl11a, with an unexpected guidance role for Erg. Second, we tested how activation of transcription factor Bcl11b during commitment altered ongoing cellular programs. In knockout cells where Bcl11b expression was prevented, the cells did not undergo developmental arrest, instead following an alternative path as T lineage commitment was blocked. A stepwise, time-dependent regulatory cascade began with immediate-early transcription factor activation and E protein inhibition, finally leading Bcl11b knockout cells toward exit from the T cell pathway. Last, gene regulatory networks of transcription factor cross-regulation were extracted from the single-cell transcriptome results, characterizing the specification network operating before T lineage commitment and revealing its links to both the Bcl11b knockout alternative network and the network consolidating T cell identity during commitment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Lineage / genetics
  • Gene Regulatory Networks*
  • T-Lymphocytes* / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins