Transplantation of Exercise-Induced Extracellular Vesicles as a Promising Therapeutic Approach in Ischemic Stroke

Transl Stroke Res. 2022 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s12975-022-01025-4. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Clinical evidence affirms physical exercise is effective in preventive and rehabilitation approaches for ischemic stroke. This sustainable efficacy is independent of cardiovascular risk factors and associates substantial reprogramming in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs). The intricate journey of pluripotent exercise-induced EVs from parental cells to the whole-body and infiltration to cerebrovascular entity offers several mechanisms to reduce stroke incidence and injury or accelerate the subsequent recovery. This review delineates the potential roles of EVs as prospective effectors of exercise. The candidate miRNA and peptide cargo of exercise-induced EVs with both atheroprotective and neuroprotective characteristics are discussed, along with their presumed targets and pathway interactions. The existing literature provides solid ground to hypothesize that the rich vesicles link exercise to stroke prevention and rehabilitation. However, there are several open questions about the exercise stressors which may optimally regulate EVs kinetic and boost brain mitochondrial adaptations. This review represents a novel perspective on achieving brain fitness against stroke through transplantation of multi-potential EVs generated by multi-parental cells, which is exceptionally reachable in an exercising body.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Ischemic stroke; Physical exercise.

Publication types

  • Review