Objective: Intracranial aneurysms are present in up to 18% of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. No consensus exists on the optimal treatment strategy for AVM-associated aneurysms. The goal of this study was to systematically review endovascular treatment methods of AVM-associated intracranial aneurysms, radiographic outcomes, and periprocedural complications.
Methods: A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify studies that investigated the use of endovascular treatments for management of patients with AVM-associated aneurysms. Collected variables included aneurysm and AVM location, aneurysm size and characteristics, AVM and aneurysm treatment modality, periprocedural complications, and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes.
Results: Eight studies with 237 patients and 314 AVM-associated intracranial aneurysms were included. Two-hundred and twenty-four aneurysms were flow-related (71.3%), 80 were intranidal (25.5%), and 10 were unrelated (3.2%). Complete occlusion was 56.3% (18/32) for aneurysmal coil embolization and 99% (104/105) for parent vessel sacrifice. Of the 13 aneurysms treated with ethanol sclerotherapy, 8 were successfully obliterated (8/13; 61%) using ethanol sclerotherapy alone and the rest required adjunct endovascular embolization for obliteration of the artery and associated aneurysm. The periprocedural complication rate was approximately 12% and consisted of ischemic symptoms, intracranial hemorrhage, and coiling complications.
Conclusions: Endovascular management options of AVM-associated intracranial aneurysms are limited and mostly comprised primary aneurysmal coil embolization or parent vessel sacrifice using coils or liquid embolics. Embolization strategy depends on factors such as AVM angioarchitecture, rupture status, and adjunct AVM treatments.
Keywords: AVM-associated aneurysms; Aneurysm; Arteriovenous malformation (AVM); Embolization; Endovascular; Intracranial; Systematic literature review.
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