Determination of famprofazone, amphetamine and methamphetamine in liver samples using enzymatic cell dispersion and SPE-LC-ESI-MS

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2022 Aug 5;217:114821. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2022.114821. Epub 2022 May 6.


The use of small amounts of sample presents advantages in chromatographic analyses that have made this a current trend following the development of increasingly sensitive analytical techniques. Biological sample preparation methods, especially for rigid or semi-rigid matrices, are also under constant development, focusing on a more efficient extraction and in obtaining cleaner residues for analysis. In this context, the aim of this study was to present a validated a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the quantification of famprofazone and its metabolites, methamphetamine and amphetamine in liver, using enzymatic cell dispersion promoted by collagenase, followed by protein precipitation and solid phase extraction (SPE) for sample extraction, concentration and clean-up. Potentially relevant variables for enzymatic cell dispersion concerning efficiency, such as enzyme concentration, temperature, buffering, agitation, and mechanical effect of stainless-steel spheres were assessed. Recovery evaluations were performed during the optimization of each step to ensure minimal loss of analytes. Linearity, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, carryover, matrix effect, precision and bias were evaluated using fortified blank samples. An authentic sample was obtained from a controlled daily oral administration of 200 mg famprofazone to pigs for five days. The procedure was optimized for 500 mg of liver tissue, obtaining 99.9 ± 9.3% of digested collagen and 90.2 ± 1.7% of dispersed cells, without the tissue losses that usually ensue during crushing or grinding processes. Precision (CV%) was ≤ 10% and bias was ≤ 13% for all analytes. The LOQ was 5 ng/g for all analytes. The mean famprofazone concentration was 9.3 ± 0.53 ng/g, and mean metabolite concentrations were 16.7 ± 1.67 and 24.3 ± 1.36 ng/g for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively.

Keywords: Amphetamines; Collagenase; Enzymatic digestion; Famprofazone; Liver.

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamine*
  • Animals
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Methamphetamine* / analogs & derivatives
  • Methamphetamine* / analysis
  • Pyrazolones
  • Solid Phase Extraction / methods
  • Swine
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods


  • Pyrazolones
  • Methamphetamine
  • Amphetamine
  • famprofazone