Background: Population-based studies typically rely on self-reported medical diagnosis (SRMD) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia; however, links to objective neurocognitive function have not been established.
Objective: Examine the association between SRMD of MCI/dementia and objective neurocognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adults.
Methods: We conducted a case-control study using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) baseline data and its ancillary SOL-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging (SOL-INCA) at visit 2. Hispanic/Latino adults aged 50 years and older (n = 593) were administered neurocognitive tests: the Six-Item Screener (SIS), Brief-Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (B-SVELT Sum), B-SVELT Recall, Word Fluency Test (WF), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSS), and Trail Making Test A and B. Individual and global neurocognitive function scores were used for analyses. Propensity matching techniques and survey generalized linear regression models were used to compare SRMD of MCI/dementia with demographic, psychological, and cardiovascular risk matched controls. Complex survey design methods were applied.
Results: There were 121 cases of SRMD of MCI/dementia and 472 propensity matched controls. At baseline, compared to matched controls, cases showed no differences in neurocognitive function (p > 0.05). At SOL-INCA visit 2, cases had poorer scores in global neurocognitive function (p < 0.05), B-SEVLT Sum, B-SEVLT Recall, WF, DSS, and Trail A (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: Observed differences in neurocognitive test scores between SRMD of MCI/dementia cases and matched controls were present at visit 2, but not at baseline in middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino adults. These findings present initial evidence of the potential utility of SRMD of MCI/dementia in epidemiologic studies, where obtaining confirmation of diagnosis may not be feasible.
Keywords: Cognition; Hispanic; Latino; dementia; mild cognitive impairment; neurocognition.