The prevalence of dyspepsia was evaluated in 83 young conscripted soldiers: 38 of them were normally resident in the town where the barracks was sited (Genoa) while 45 came from different districts. Dyspepsia was observed in 49.4% of total cases, and there were significant differences in the incidence between the two groups. In 40 out of 41 cases, dyspepsia was of the functional type. Psychoneurotic reactions were found in 69.8% of total cases and these reactions were closely correlated with the occurrence of dyspepsia both in soldiers who were local residents and those who were not. Dyspepsia could not however be correlated with eating habits, or with the consumption of alcohol, coffee or tobacco.