Adaptation to sublethal amounts of ethanol enables Salmonella Enteritidis to survive under normally lethal ethanol conditions, which is referred to as the ethanol tolerance response (ETR). To uncover mechanisms underlying this adaptative response, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR techniques were employed to reveal global gene expression patterns in S. Enteritidis after sublethal ethanol treatment. It was observed that 811 genes were significantly differentially expressed in ethanol-treated cells compared with control cells, among which 328 were up-regulated and 483 were down-regulated. Functional analysis revealed that these genes were enriched in different pathways, including signal transduction, membrane transport, metabolism, transcription, translation, and cell motility. Specifically, a couple of genes encoding histidine kinases and response regulators in two-component systems were up-regulated to activate sensing and signaling pathways. Membrane function was also influenced by ethanol treatment since ABC transporter genes for transport of glutamate, phosphate, 2-aminoethylphosphonate, and osmoprotectant were up-regulated, while those for transport of iron complex, manganese, and ribose were down-regulated. Accompanied with this, diverse gene expression alterations related to the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and nucleotides were observed, which suggested nutritional requirements for S. Enteritidis to mount the ETR. Furthermore, genes associated with ribosomal units, bacterial chemotaxis, and flagellar assembly were generally repressed as a possible energy conservation strategy. Taken together, this transcriptomic study indicates that S. Enteritidis employs multiple genes and adaptation pathways to develop the ETR.
Keywords: Adaptation pathway; Ethanol tolerance; Gene expression; Salmonella enteritidis; Transcriptomic analysis.
© 2022 The Authors.