An electron-capture GLC method is described for oxycodone and its major metabolite, noroxycodone, in plasma and urine. The method involves extraction of the two substances into benzene-isopropranol at pH 10.4, followed by back-extraction into 0.1 N HCl. The acid phase is washed with hexane and made alkaline prior to reextraction into benzene-isopropanol. The solvent is removed by evaporation, and the heptafluorobutyryl derivatives of the test substances are formed. After removal of excess reagent, oxycodone and noroxycodone are quantitated by GLC. The characteristics of both substances, with respect to plasma levels in dogs and analgesic activity in mice, are reported. Isolation of noroxycodone from human urine and its identification by TLC, GLC, and mass spectrometry are described.