Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Gamma lineage introduction and COVID-19 vaccination on the epidemiological landscape of a Brazilian city

Commun Med (Lond). 2022 Apr 13;2:41. doi: 10.1038/s43856-022-00108-5. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Background: The emergence of the Brazilian variant of concern, Gamma lineage (P.1), impacted the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 cases due to its higher transmissibility rate and immune evasion ability.

Methods: We sequenced 305 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to identify introduction events and the circulating lineages. Additionally, we use epidemiological data of COVID-19 cases, severe cases, and deaths to measure the impact of vaccination coverage and mortality risk.

Results: Here we show that Gamma introduction in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, was followed by the displacement of seven circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and a rapid increase in prevalence two months after its first detection in January 2021. Moreover, Gamma variant is associated with increased mortality risk and severity of COVID-19 cases in younger age groups, which corresponds to the unvaccinated population at the time.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of vaccination indicated by a pronounced reduction of severe cases and deaths in immunized individuals, reinforcing the need for rapid and massive vaccination.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Viral infection.