Background: The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of quality of life (QOL) in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate QOL by means of GIQLI in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) prior to any interventional therapy. There are several reports on GIQLI data; however, comparisons from different countries and/or different GERD cohorts assessing the same disease have to date not been conducted.
Methods: The GIQLI uses 36 items around 5 dimensions (GI symptoms [19 items], emotional dimension [5 items], physical dimension [7 items], social dimension [4 items], and therapeutic influences [1 item]). A literature search was conducted on the application of GIQLI in GERD patients prior to interventional therapy using reports in PubMed. Data on the mean GIQLI as well as index data for the 5 dimensions as originally validated were extracted from the published patient cohorts. A comparison with the normal healthy control group from the original publication of the GIQLI validation conducted by Eypasch was performed. Data are presented descriptively as GIQLI points as well as a reduction from 100% maximum possible index points (max 144 index points = highest QOL).
Results: In total, 77 abstracts from studies using the GIQLI on patients with GERD were identified. After screening for content, 21 publications were considered for further analysis. Ten studies in GERD patients comprised complete calculations of all dimensions and were included in the analysis. Data from 1,682 study patients were evaluated with sample sizes ranging from 33 to 568 patients (median age of 789 females and 858 males: 51.8 years). The median overall GIQLI for the patient group was 91.7 (range 86-102.4), corresponding to 63.68% of the maximum GIQLI. The dimensions with the largest deviation from the respective maximum score were the physical dimension (55% of maximum) followed by the emotional dimension (60% of maximum). In summary, the GIQLI level in GERD cohorts was reduced to 55-75% of the maximum possible index.
Conclusions: Severe GERD causes substantial reductions in the patient's QOL. The level of GIQLI can carry between different studied GERD cohorts from different departments and countries. GIQLI can be used as an established tool to assess the patient's condition in various dimensions.
Keywords: Esophageal functional disorders; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index; Quality of life.
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