Imaging and quantifying non-radiative losses at 23% efficient inverted perovskite solar cells interfaces

Nat Commun. 2022 May 23;13(1):2868. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-30426-0.


Interface engineering through passivating agents, in the form of organic molecules, is a powerful strategy to enhance the performance of perovskite solar cells. Despite its pivotal function in the development of a rational device optimization, the actual role played by the incorporation of interfacial modifications and the interface physics therein remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the interface and device physics, quantifying charge recombination and charge losses in state-of-the-art inverted solar cells with power conversion efficiency beyond 23% - among the highest reported so far - by using multidimensional photoluminescence imaging. By doing that we extract physical parameters such as quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) and Urbach energy enabling us to assess that the main passivation mechanism affects the perovskite/PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) interface rather than surface defects. In this work, by linking optical, electrical measurements and modelling we highlight the benefits of organic passivation, made in this case by phenylethylammonium (PEAI) based cations, in maximising all the photovoltaic figures of merit.