Characteristics and natural history of early-stage cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis

Eur Heart J. 2022 Jul 14;43(27):2622-2632. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac259.


Aims: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is increasingly diagnosed at an early stage of the disease natural history, defined as National Amyloidosis Centre (NAC) ATTR Stage I. The natural history of early-stage ATTR-CM remains poorly characterized.

Methods and results: A retrospective multi-centre observational study of 879 patients with ATTR-CM, either wild-type TTR genotype or carrying the p.V142I TTR variant, and NAC ATTR Stage I biomarkers at the time of diagnosis who did not receive disease-modifying therapy for amyloidosis. Disease characteristics at diagnosis that were independently associated with mortality by Cox regression analysis were N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), TTR genotype, and troponin T. Patients were categorized into NAC ATTR Stage Ia, defined as a furosemide equivalent diuretic requirement of <0.75 mg/kg and an NT-proBNP ≤500 ng/L or ≤1000 ng/L in the presence of atrial fibrillation, and NAC ATTR Stage Ib comprising all remaining Stage I patients. Median estimated survival among the 88% NAC ATTR Stage Ib patients was 75 (95% CI 57-93) months compared with >100 months in the 12% with Stage Ia disease [hazard ratio for death 5.06 (95% confidence interval 1.23-20.87); P = 0.025] despite significant cardiovascular morbidity at the time of diagnosis which increased during follow-up, including among patients diagnosed in NAC ATTR Stage Ia. Estimated survival among UK NAC ATTR Stage Ia patients was comparable to UK general population controls (P = 0.297).

Conclusion: Patients with NAC ATTR Stage I ATTR-CM can be further stratified according to NT-proBNP concentration and diuretic requirement at diagnosis. Patients with Stage Ia ATTR-CM have significant cardiovascular morbidity despite good short- and mid-term survival.

Keywords: Amyloid; Amyloidosis; Cardiomyopathy; Staging; TTR; Transthyretin.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases*
  • Disease Progression
  • Diuretics
  • Humans
  • Prealbumin / genetics


  • Diuretics
  • Prealbumin

Supplementary concepts

  • Amyloidosis, Hereditary, Transthyretin-Related