Three-dimensional printing, holograms, computational modelling, and artificial intelligence for adult congenital heart disease care: an exciting future

Eur Heart J. 2022 Jul 21;43(28):2672-2684. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac266.


Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often comprised of complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy that must be well understood to assess the pathophysiological consequences and guide therapy. Thus, detailed cardiac imaging for early detection and planning of interventional and/or surgical treatment is paramount. Advanced technologies have revolutionized diagnostic and therapeutic practice in CHD, thus playing an increasing role in its management. Traditional reliance on standard imaging modalities including echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been augmented by the use of recent technologies such as 3D printing, virtual reality, augmented reality, computational modelling, and artificial intelligence because of insufficient information available with these standard imaging techniques. This has created potential opportunities of incorporating these technologies into routine clinical practice to achieve the best outcomes through delivery of personalized medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of these evolving technologies and a new approach enabling physicians to better understand their real-world application in adult CHD as a prelude to clinical workflow implementation.

Keywords: 3D printing; Adult with congenital heart defect; Artificial intelligence; Augmented reality; Computational modelling; Virtual reality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Heart
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Virtual Reality*