The Impact of Smoking Status 1 Year After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction on Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Patients Aged ≤60 Years

Am J Cardiol. 2022 Jul 15:175:52-57. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.04.019. Epub 2022 May 22.


Smoking is associated with increased risk for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at a young age. Although smoking is a modifiable risk factor, smoking cessation rates after STEMI are suboptimal. We investigated the association between smoking status 1 year after STEMI and adverse events in patients (n = 765) aged ≤60 years. Patients were categorized as: (1) nonsmokers, (2) quit smoking, and (3) continued/resumed smoking. The association between smoking status and risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) was analyzed during a median follow-up of 8 years. At presentation with STEMI, the mean age was 51 ± 7 years (88% men) and 427 (56%) were smokers. A year after STEMI, 272 continued smoking, 35 quit but later resumed smoking (summed to a single group; n = 307), and 120 quit smoking. Continued smoking was associated with younger age, male gender, lower weight, and low socioeconomic status. Compared with nonsmokers, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, death, and MACE was 2.51 (1.67 to 3.73), 2.07 (0.94 to 4.56), 3.73 (1.84 to 7.58), 2.52 (1.53 to 4.13), and 2.40 (1.80 to 3.22), accordingly, in those who continued to smoke. However, the adjusted hazard ratio was not significantly associated with these outcomes in patients who quit smoking (MACE: 1.20 [0.77 to 1.87], p=0.414; nonsignificant for individual end points). In conclusion, the prevalence of smoking in young and middle-aged patients presenting with STEMI is high and smoking cessation rates are low. A year after STEMI, those who continued to smoke had worse cardiovascular outcomes and death compared with nonsmokers; however, the long-term outcomes among those who quit smoking appear to be comparable with nonsmokers. The results highlight the contrast between health benefits of quitting smoking after STEMI and low abstinence rates in clinical practice.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / methods
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology