Objectives: The pathological mechanism of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is still unclear. Animal models induced by surgical interventions are one of the most ideal tools to imitate human pathological conditions. This review aims to define the similarities and differences of different surgical animal models.
Methods: Articles of TMJOA surgical animal models were collected including anterior disc displacement, disc perforation, and discectomy. We analyzed their experiments strategies based on comparing preoperative selection, intraoperative methodology, and postoperative manifestations.
Results: No matter which surgical intervention is selected, abnormal stress forces the whole joint to remodel its structure so that it could adapt to functional requirements, resulting in TMJOA eventually. However, anterior disc displacement needs more than 16 weeks to obtain typical manifestations, where the methodology is complicated. The course of perforation and discectomy is around 12-16 weeks, but they could cause excessive damage to the TMJ structure.
Conclusions: All surgical interventions can cause TMJOA, but the extent of pathology varies from each other. This review will assist future experiments to better understand the pathogenesis of TMJOA and choose the most appropriate model.
Keywords: animal model; surgical intervention; temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.
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