Background: Incisional hernia (HI), in open and laparoscopic surgery, is a very frequent complication. HI located in the umbilical region are called M3. The main aim of this study is to compare HI produced by the placement of an umbilical laparoscopic trocar (M3T) with those located in M3 in open surgery (M3O) in terms of basal characteristics, complications and recurrences; and secondarily the identification of risk factors.
Method: Cross-sectional observational study based on the national prospective registry EVEREG during the period of July 2012-June 2018. The main variables were recurrences and postoperative complications. Both groups (M3T and M3O) were compared. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors of the entire cohort.
Results: 882 had a follow-up time longer than 12 months. M3O group presented superior ASA-Class, more complex HI and previous repair. It also presented a higher recurrence rate at 12 and 24 months (8.6% vs. 2.5%; P < 0,0001 and 9.3% vs. 2.9%; P < 0.0001) and higher postoperative complications rate (21.9% vs. 14.6 %; P = 0.02). Previous repair, intervention length and associated procedures requirement were identified as risk factors for postoperative complications. Absence of a specialist present during surgery, previous repair, and the absence of complications were identified as risk factors for recurrence. In the PSM analysis no differences were detected in of complications and recurrences.
Conclusions: HI M3O is more complex than M3T. The complexity is not related to the origin of the hernia but to its characteristics and those of the patient.
Keywords: Complicaciones; Complications; Hernia de trócar; Hernia incisional; Hernia registry; Incisional hernia; Incisional hernia repair; Recurrence; Recurrencia; Registro hernia; Reparación hernia incisional; Trocar hernia.
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