Purpose: This study aimed to compare downstream utilization of medical services among critically ill infants admitted to intensive care units who received rapid exome sequencing (ES) and those who followed alternative diagnostic testing pathways.
Methods: Using propensity score-weighted regression models including sex, age at admission, and severity indicators, we compared a group of 47 infants who underwent rapid ES with a group of 211 infants who did not receive rapid ES. Utilization and cost indicators were compared between cohorts using negative binomial models for utilization and two-part models for costs.
Results: After controlling for patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in outpatient visits, hospitalizations, intensive care unit or total length of stay, or length of stay-associated costs between the cohorts at 12- or 26-month follow-up. Similarly, there was no evidence of higher utilization or costs by the ES group when infants who died were removed from the analysis.
Conclusion: When examining utilization during and beyond the diagnostic trajectory, there is no evidence that ES changes frequency of outpatient visits or use of in-hospital resources in critically ill infants with suspected genetic disorders.
Keywords: Downstream utilization; Exome sequencing; Infants; Intensive care unit; Length of stay.
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