(1) Background: Disperse Blue 14, Disperse Red 9, Solvent Red 169 and Solvent Yellow 33 have been used to color smoke; however, they have not been comprehensively assessed for their potential health hazards. (2) Methods: To assess the effects of these dyes, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to 10-55 µM Disperse Red 9, 1-50 µM Solvent Red 169, 7.5-13.5 µM Solvent Yellow 33 or 133-314 µM Disperse Blue 14. Embryos were monitored for adverse effects on gene expression at 48 hpf as well as for mortality, development and behavior at 120 hpf. The dyes were examined for their potential to cross the blood-brain barrier. (3) Results: Solvent Yellow 33 and Disperse Blue 14 impaired development and behavior at all concentrations. Disperse Red 9 impaired behavior at all concentrations and development at all concentrations except for 10 µM. Solvent Red 169 caused no effects. Mortality was only seen in Disperse Blue 14 at 261.5 and 314 µM. Gene expression indicated impacts on neurodevelopment and folate and retinol metabolism as potential mechanisms of toxicity. (4) Conclusions: Smoke dyes have a high potential for causing developmental changes and neurotoxicity and should be examined more closely using comprehensive approaches as used here.
Keywords: behavior; pathway; smoke dye; transcriptomics; zebrafish embryo test.