Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and gingival wound healing activities of Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa (hemp) extract and cannabidiol (CBD).
Design: The cellular bioactivities of hemp extract and CBD were determined the inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-induced murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells by using ELISA while wound healing activity in human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells was performed by a scratch test assay. The cytotoxicity was also concerned and evaluated by MTT assay.
Results: The hemp extract and CBD significantly decreased TNF-α release by up to 91.05 ± 2.91% and 50.78 ± 7.21% of LPS activity, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner, compared to 10 µg/mL hydrocortisone (61.67 ± 3.79%). The hemp extract and CBD also significantly decreased IL-1β release, also in dose-dependent response, up to 78.03 ± 3.34% and 85.87 ± 1.11% of LPS activity, respectively, compared to 5 µg/mL hydrocortisone (80.81 ± 3.55%). The mean percentage of closure of the wound area was 27.92 ± 1.21% when exposed to 5 µg/mL hemp extract and 33.49 ± 1.67% when exposed to 0.5 µg/mL CBD, compared to 24.34 ± 2.29% for non-treated control.
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that both hemp extract and CBD can inhibit TNF-α and IL-1β production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and promote wound healing in HGF-1 cells. This is the first to show that short-term exposure to hemp extract and CBD promoted gingival fibroblast wound healing, demonstrating that hemp extract and CBD have potential benefits in the treatment of oral inflammation and ulcers.
Keywords: Cannabidiol; Cannabis sativa L.; Hemp; IL-1β; TNF-α; Wound healing.
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