Anti-inflammation and gingival wound healing activities of Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa (hemp) extract and cannabidiol: An in vitro study

Arch Oral Biol. 2022 Aug;140:105464. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2022.105464. Epub 2022 May 19.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and gingival wound healing activities of Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa (hemp) extract and cannabidiol (CBD).

Design: The cellular bioactivities of hemp extract and CBD were determined the inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-induced murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells by using ELISA while wound healing activity in human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells was performed by a scratch test assay. The cytotoxicity was also concerned and evaluated by MTT assay.

Results: The hemp extract and CBD significantly decreased TNF-α release by up to 91.05 ± 2.91% and 50.78 ± 7.21% of LPS activity, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner, compared to 10 µg/mL hydrocortisone (61.67 ± 3.79%). The hemp extract and CBD also significantly decreased IL-1β release, also in dose-dependent response, up to 78.03 ± 3.34% and 85.87 ± 1.11% of LPS activity, respectively, compared to 5 µg/mL hydrocortisone (80.81 ± 3.55%). The mean percentage of closure of the wound area was 27.92 ± 1.21% when exposed to 5 µg/mL hemp extract and 33.49 ± 1.67% when exposed to 0.5 µg/mL CBD, compared to 24.34 ± 2.29% for non-treated control.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that both hemp extract and CBD can inhibit TNF-α and IL-1β production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and promote wound healing in HGF-1 cells. This is the first to show that short-term exposure to hemp extract and CBD promoted gingival fibroblast wound healing, demonstrating that hemp extract and CBD have potential benefits in the treatment of oral inflammation and ulcers.

Keywords: Cannabidiol; Cannabis sativa L.; Hemp; IL-1β; TNF-α; Wound healing.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Cannabis*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / pharmacology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Oral Ulcer*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Wound Healing

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Cannabidiol
  • Hydrocortisone