Background: Late complications associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in patients are common occurrences. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with PEG-related late complications.
Methods: Patients who underwent PEG exchange were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records between January 2015 and November 2020. Medical records were reviewed longitudinally from the PEG replacement date until the first complication event, death, or the end of the study. The late complication was defined as the PEG-related complications six months after the initial PEG placement. Potential risk factors were tested using Cox proportional hazard.
Results: A total of 116 patients (mean age 80.5 ± 17.6 years, 52.6% male) were enrolled with a 12 (4-23) months median follow-up. The indications were mostly neurologic disease (89.7%). Non-balloon PEG was used in 93 (80.2%) patients with balloon-type in 23 (19.8%) patients. PEG-related late complications developed in 35 (30.2%) patients with a median time of 9 (4-23) months. In the multivariate analysis, the PEG-related late complication rate was significantly higher in patients with balloon-type PEG tube (HR 5.54; 95%CI, 2.55-12.05; p < 0.001) and also showed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of developing complications (54.9% vs. 12.8% at one year and 76% vs. 22.8% at two years, p < 0.001). The most common complication was PEG dislodgement (n = 14, 40%).
Conclusion: Late-onset of PEG tube-associated complications is a common problem. The significant factor associated with PEG tube complication was balloon-type PEG placement.
Keywords: Clinical outcome; Gastrostomy tube exchange; Late complication; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
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