Glioblastoma (GBM) is an incurable primary malignant brain cancer hallmarked with a substantial protumorigenic immune component. Knowledge of the GBM immune microenvironment during tumor evolution and standard of care treatments is limited. Using single-cell transcriptomics and flow cytometry, we unveiled large-scale comprehensive longitudinal changes in immune cell composition throughout tumor progression in an epidermal growth factor receptor-driven genetic mouse GBM model. We identified subsets of proinflammatory microglia in developing GBMs and anti-inflammatory macrophages and protumorigenic myeloid-derived suppressors cells in end-stage tumors, an evolution that parallels breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and extensive growth of epidermal growth factor receptor+ GBM cells. A similar relationship was found between microglia and macrophages in patient biopsies of low-grade glioma and GBM. Temozolomide decreased the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, whereas concomitant temozolomide irradiation increased intratumoral GranzymeB+ CD8+T cells but also increased CD4+ regulatory T cells. These results provide a comprehensive and unbiased immune cellular landscape and its evolutionary changes during GBM progression.
© 2022. The Author(s).