Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease in children and the treatment option before the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rarely reported. Our main objective was to report our single-center experience with the DNA-hypomethylating agent, decitabine-combined minimally myelosuppressive regimen (DAC + MMR) bridged allo-HSCT in children with MDS.
Methods: Twenty-eight children with de novo MDS who underwent allo-HSCT between 2011 and 2020 were enrolled. Patients were divided into subgroups (refractory cytopenia of childhood [RCC] and advanced MDS [aMDS]) and treated by HSCT alone or pre-transplant combination treatment based on risk stratification. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.
Results: Twenty patients with aMDS had received pre-transplant treatment (three were treated with decitabine alone, thirteen with DAC + MMR, and four with acute myeloid leukemia type [AML-type] induction therapy). DAC + MMR was well tolerated and the most common adverse events were myelosuppression and gastrointestinal reaction. DAC + MMR had shown an improved marrow complete remission (mCR) compared with AML-type chemotherapy (13/13, 100% versus 2/4, 50%, P = 0.044). The median follow-up for total cohort was 53.0 months (range, 2.3-127.0 months) and the 4-year overall survival (OS) was 71.4 ± 8.5%. In the subgroup of aMDS, pretreatment of DAC + MMR resulted in a much better survival rate than AML-type chemotherapy (84.6 ± 10.0% versus 0.0 ± 0.0%, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: The DAC + MMR bridged allo-HSCT may be recommended as a novel and effective approach.
Keywords: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Decitabine; Minimally myelosuppressive regimen; Overall survival; Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome.
© 2022. The Author(s).