Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men. Prostate-specific antigen screening is recommended for the detection of PCa. However, its specificity is limited. Thus, there is a need to find more reliable biomarkers that allow non-invasive screening for early-stage PCa. This study aims to explore urine microRNAs (miRs) as diagnostic biomarkers for PCa. We assessed cell-free miR (cfmiR) profiles of urine and plasma samples from pre- and post-operative PCa patients (n = 11) and normal healthy donors (16 urine and 24 plasma) using HTG EdgeSeq miRNA Whole Transcriptome Assay based on next-generation sequencing. Furthermore, tumor-related miRs were detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues obtained from patients with localized PCa. Specific cfmiRs signatures were found in urine samples of localized PCa patients using differential expression analysis. Forty-two cfmiRs that were detected were common to urine, plasma, and tumor samples. These urine cfmiRs may have potential utility in diagnosing early-stage PCa and complementing or improving currently available PCa screening assays. Future studies may validate the findings.
Keywords: cell-free microRNA; diagnosis; microRNA; plasma; prostate cancer; urine.