Adverse Events in 1406 Patients Receiving 13,780 Cycles of Azacitidine within the Austrian Registry of Hypomethylating Agents-A Prospective Cohort Study of the AGMT Study-Group

Cancers (Basel). 2022 May 17;14(10):2459. doi: 10.3390/cancers14102459.


Background: Azacitidine is the treatment backbone for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who are considered unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Detailed reports on adverse events in a real-world setting are lacking. Aims: To analyze the frequency of adverse events in the Austrian Registry of Hypomethylating agents. To compare real-world data with that of published randomized clinical trials. Results: A total of 1406 patients uniformly treated with a total of 13,780 cycles of azacitidine were analyzed. Hematologic adverse events were the most common adverse events (grade 3-4 anemia 43.4%, grade 3-4 thrombopenia 36.8%, grade 3-4 neutropenia 36.1%). Grade 3-4 anemia was significantly more common in the Registry compared to published trials. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 33.4% of patients and was also more common in the Registry than in published reports. Other commonly reported adverse events included fatigue (33.4%), pain (29.2%), pyrexia (23.5%), and injection site reactions (23.2%). Treatment termination due to an adverse event was rare (5.1%). Conclusion: The safety profile of azacitidine in clinical trials is reproducible in a real-world setting. With the use of prophylactic and concomitant medications, adverse events can be mitigated and azacitidine can be safely administered to almost all patients with few treatment discontinuations.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; adverse events; azacitidine; chronic myelomonocytic leukemia; myelodysplastic syndromes; prospective cohort study; real-world evidence; toxicity; treatment.

Grants and funding

The Austrian Group of Medical Tumor Therapy is the sponsor for the Austrian Registry of Hypomethylating Agents and received funding from Celgene. The AGMT is a non-profit organization and an academic study group. The group performed administrative and legal management.