Green Deal and Circular Economy of Bottom Ash Waste Management in Building Industry-Alkali (NaOH) Pre-Treatment

Materials (Basel). 2022 May 12;15(10):3487. doi: 10.3390/ma15103487.


This study aims to investigate the possibilities of municipal waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) utilization in the construction sector. MSWIBA development fits into the European Green Deal, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Circular Economy (CE). This manuscript describes current MSWIBA treatment such as solidification, ceramization, vitrification, chemical activation (NaOH, CaOH2, NA2SiO3 + NaOH, Na2CO3 + NaOH, NH4OH), acid treatment with diluted solutions (HCl, H2SO4), chemical stabilization (FeSO4, PO43-), chelation, etc. For the purpose of comparative research, MSWIBA before valorization, after valorization, and after NaOH pre-treatment was investigated. In terms of their physico-chemical properties, the tested samples were examined. Three kinds of MSWIBA were used as a substitute for 30% of cement in mortars. The mortars were tested for 28-day strength. Leachability tests were performed in acid, aggressive, alkali, and neutral water environments. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was carried out, which presented the environmental benefits of MSWIBA management in construction.

Keywords: European Green Deal; NaOH pre-treatment; circular economy; heavy metals immobilization; municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash; secondary waste.