Differential Associations of Intakes of Whole Grains and Coarse Grains with Risks of Cardiometabolic Factors among Adults in China

Nutrients. 2022 May 18;14(10):2109. doi: 10.3390/nu14102109.


There is a lack of studies on the association between whole grain intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in China and the current definition of whole grains is inconsistent. This study defined whole grains in two ways, Western versus traditional, and examined their associations with the risks of major cardiometabolic factors (CMFs) among 4706 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years, who participated in surveys both in 2011 and in 2015. Diet data were collected by consecutive 3 d 24 h recalls, together with household seasoning weighing. Whole grains were defined as grains with a ratio of fiber to carbohydrate of ≥0.1, while coarse grains were defined as grains except for rice and its products, and wheat and its products. Multivariable logistic regressions were modeled to analyze the associations of intakes of whole grains and coarse grains, respectively, with risks of major CMFs including obesity-, blood pressure-, blood glucose- and lipid-related factors, which were defined by International Diabetes Federation and AHA/NHLBI criteria. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of elevated LDL-C decreased with the increasing intake levels of whole grains (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88, p-trend < 0.05). Moreover, adults with the whole grain intake of 50.00 to 150.00 g/day had 27% lower odds of overweight and obesity (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.99) and 31% lower odds of elevated LDL-C (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96), as compared with non-consumers. In conclusion, given the significant nutrient profiles of whole grains and coarse grains, the adults with higher intakes of whole grains only may have a lower risk of LDL-C and overweight and obesity.

Keywords: China; adults; cardiometabolic factors; coarse grains; whole grains.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Edible Grain
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / etiology
  • Obesity / prevention & control
  • Overweight / complications
  • Overweight / epidemiology
  • Overweight / prevention & control
  • Whole Grains*


  • Cholesterol, LDL