Facial Motion Analysis beyond Emotional Expressions

Sensors (Basel). 2022 May 19;22(10):3839. doi: 10.3390/s22103839.


Facial motion analysis is a research field with many practical applications, and has been strongly developed in the last years. However, most effort has been focused on the recognition of basic facial expressions of emotion and neglects the analysis of facial motions related to non-verbal communication signals. This paper focuses on the classification of facial expressions that are of the utmost importance in sign languages (Grammatical Facial Expressions) but also present in expressive spoken language. We have collected a dataset of Spanish Sign Language sentences and extracted the intervals for three types of Grammatical Facial Expressions: negation, closed queries and open queries. A study of several deep learning models using different input features on the collected dataset (LSE_GFE) and an external dataset (BUHMAP) shows that GFEs can be learned reliably with Graph Convolutional Networks simply fed with face landmarks.

Keywords: action units; convolutional neural networks; facial expression recognition; facial landmarks; graph convolutional networks.

MeSH terms

  • Emotions
  • Face*
  • Facial Expression*
  • Humans
  • Recognition, Psychology
  • Sign Language