A single-center experience of 30-day perioperative and one year clinical outcomes of transcarotid artery revascularization in 100 consecutive patients

Vascular. 2023 Dec;31(6):1161-1172. doi: 10.1177/17085381221106330. Epub 2022 May 29.

Abstract

Background: Transcarotid Artery Revascularization (TCAR) using the ENROUTE system (Silk Road) has been proposed as a safe and effective alternative to both carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and transfemoral carotid artery stenting (TF-CAS). Two large registries (ROADSTER 1 and ROADSTER 2) have shown that TCAR has acceptable/low rates of perioperative stroke/death. This study will analyze the 30-day perioperative and 1-year clinical outcomes from a single-center.

Patient population and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from SVS/VQI TCAR surveillance project (TSP) of 100 consecutive patients (102 TCAR procedures) done in our institution. These procedures were done for high-risk patients for CEA, which included anatomical (previous CEA, high cervical lesion, neck radiation, stoma, arch type, etc.), physiological (CHF, severe coronary artery disease, COPD on O2 therapy, etc.) and combined anatomical/physiological reasons. These procedures were done by vascular surgeons after receiving the appropriate training. The perioperative stroke, death, and MI rates were analyzed. Kaplan Meyer analysis was used to estimate rate of freedom from stroke/death and the incidence of ≥50% and ≥80% in-stent restenosis at 1 year.

Results: 100 consecutive high-risk patients for CEA included: 38% anatomical, 44% physiological, and 18% combined anatomical and physiological reasons. The mean age was 72.5 years (range 52-90 years). Indications for TCAR were 34% for symptomatic lesions (TIA/stroke) and 66% for asymptomatic lesions. Mean ipsilateral treated stenosis was 80.4%. Contralateral ≥50% stenosis/occlusion was present in 31% of patients. Technical success rate was 100%. 92% had pre-stenting PTA and 26% had post-stenting PTA. The mean flow reversal time was 8.5 min (range 3-26 min). The 30-day perioperative stroke rate was 2.9% (1/67, 1.5% for asymptomatic patients), the stroke/death rate was 2.9%, and stroke/death and MI rate was 3.9% (4/102). Other perioperative complications included cranial nerve injury 3/102 (2.9%), carotid artery dissection (2%), and major hematoma (necessitated operation evacuation) (5.9%). Freedom from stroke rates and stroke/death rates at 1 year were: 90% and 89%. Freedom from ≥50% and ≥80% in-stent restenosis rates at 1 year were 82% and 90%, respectively. None of these restenosis were symptomatic except two (2/13). Freedom from reintervention rate at 1 year was 98%.

Conclusion: Although the perioperative events were somewhat higher than what has been reported in previous registries, TCAR for patients who are high-risk for CEA has a low perioperative stroke and stroke/death rates with satisfactory outcome at 1 year. Further long-term data is probably needed to verify long-term outcome.

Keywords: carotid; transcarotid artery revascularization.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arteries
  • Carotid Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Stenosis* / surgery
  • Constriction, Pathologic
  • Coronary Restenosis* / complications
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid* / adverse effects
  • Endovascular Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stents / adverse effects
  • Stroke* / etiology
  • Treatment Outcome