Repression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) 1B Expression and Increase of Plasma Coproporphyrin Level as Evidence for OATP1B Downregulation in Cynomolgus Monkeys Treated with Chenodeoxycholic Acid

Drug Metab Dispos. 2022 Aug;50(8):1077-1086. doi: 10.1124/dmd.122.000875. Epub 2022 May 30.


Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor known to markedly alter expression of major transporters and enzymes in the liver. However, its effects toward organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a naturally occurring FXR agonist, on OATP1B expression in cynomolgus monkeys. Multiple administrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg of CDCA were first shown to significantly repress mRNA expression of SLCO1B1/3 approximately 60% to 80% in monkey livers. It also suppressed cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1-mRNA and induced OSTα/β-mRNA, which are well known targets of FXR and determinants of bile acid homeostasis. CDCA concomitantly decreased OATP1B protein abundance by approximately 60% in monkey liver. In contrast, multiple doses of 15 mg/kg rifampin (RIF), a pregnane X receptor agonist, had no effect on hepatic OATP1B protein, although it induced the intestinal P-glycoprotein and MR2 proteins by ∼2-fold. Moreover, multiple doses of CDCA resulted in a steady ∼2- to 10-fold increase of the OATP1B biomarkers coproporphyrins (CPs) in the plasma samples collected prior to each CDCA dose. Additionally, 3.4- to 11.2-fold increases of CPI and CPIII areas under the curve were observed after multiple administrations compared with the single dose and vehicle administration dosing groups. Taken together, these data suggest that CDCA represses the expression of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in monkeys. Further investigation of OATP1B downregulation by FXR in humans is warranted, as such downregulation effects may be involved in bile acid homeostasis and potential drug interactions in man. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Using gene expression and proteomics tools, as well as endogenous biomarker data, for the first time, we have demonstrated that OATP1B expression was suppressed and its activity was reduced in the cynomolgus monkeys following oral administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a Farnesoid X receptor agonist, for 8 days. These results lead to a better understanding of OATP1B downregulation by CDCA and its role on bile acid and drug disposition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid* / metabolism
  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid* / pharmacology
  • Coproporphyrins* / blood
  • Coproporphyrins* / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1* / genetics
  • Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1* / metabolism
  • Macaca fascicularis / metabolism
  • Organic Anion Transporters / genetics
  • Organic Anion Transporters / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Biomarkers
  • Coproporphyrins
  • Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1
  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid