Effects of Zinc, Magnesium, and Iron Ions on Bone Tissue Engineering

ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2022 Jun 13;8(6):2321-2335. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.2c00368. Epub 2022 May 31.


Large-sized bone defects are a great challenge in clinics and considerably impair the quality of patients' daily life. Tissue engineering strategies using cells, scaffolds, and bioactive molecules to regulate the microenvironment in bone regeneration is a promising approach. Zinc, magnesium, and iron ions are natural elements in bone tissue and participate in many physiological processes of bone metabolism and therefore have great potential for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. In this review, we performed a systematic analysis on the effects of zinc, magnesium, and iron ions in bone tissue engineering. We focus on the role of these ions in properties of scaffolds (mechanical strength, degradation, osteogenesis, antibacterial properties, etc.). We hope that our summary of the current research achievements and our notifications of potential strategies to improve the effects of zinc, magnesium, and iron ions in scaffolds for bone repair and regeneration will find new inspiration and breakthroughs to inspire future research.

Keywords: bone; bone regeneration; iron ions; magnesium ions; scaffolds; tissue engineering; zinc ions.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone and Bones
  • Humans
  • Ions
  • Iron / pharmacology
  • Magnesium* / pharmacology
  • Magnesium* / therapeutic use
  • Tissue Engineering*
  • Tissue Scaffolds
  • Zinc / pharmacology


  • Ions
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc