A mutation in chitin synthase I associated with etoxazole resistance in the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its uneven geographical distribution in Japan

Pest Manag Sci. 2022 Oct;78(10):4028-4036. doi: 10.1002/ps.7021. Epub 2022 Jun 20.


Background: High-levels of etoxazole resistance have not yet been frequently reported in Panonychus citri. Although a highly resistant strain was discovered in 2014, etoxazole resistance has not become a significant problem in areas of citrus production in Japan. A target site mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1), I1017F, is a major etoxazole-resistance factor in Tetranychus urticae. To investigate the mechanisms of etoxazole resistance and the dispersal of resistance genes, we analyzed target-site mutations in a highly resistant strain and their geographical distribution in Japan.

Results: High-level etoxazole resistance was completely recessive. The I1017F mutation was detected in CHS1 of the highly resistant strain, and its frequency was correlated with the hatchability of eggs treated with etoxazole. Sequencing and variant frequency analyses of local populations by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that I1017F is restricted to the Ariake Sea area of Kyushu Island. Although a new nonsynonymous substitution, S1016L, accompanied by I1017F was found in CHS1 of the highly resistant strain, CRISPR/Cas9 engineering of flies showed that S1016L had no effect on the etoxazole resistance conferred by I1017F.

Conclusion: I1017F is a major target site mutation that confers high-level etoxazole resistance on P. citri. Dispersion of I1017F possibly was suppressed as a result of the completely recessive inheritance of resistance together with low gene flow between local populations. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: CHS1; acaricide resistance; chitin synthesis inhibitor; diagnostic qPCR; geographical variation; target site mutation.

MeSH terms

  • Acaricides* / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Chitin Synthase / genetics
  • Citrus*
  • Japan
  • Mutation
  • Oxazoles
  • Tetranychidae* / genetics


  • Acaricides
  • Oxazoles
  • Chitin Synthase
  • etoxazole