Outcome prediction of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in children

Ann Hematol. 2022 Aug;101(8):1677-1688. doi: 10.1007/s00277-022-04852-5. Epub 2022 Jun 1.


We evaluated the feasibility of existing risk assessment tools for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in children. Fifty-five patients with newly diagnosed CML between 1996 and 2019 were included. Forty-nine patients presented in chronic phase, thirty-six of whom were treated with upfront tyrosine kinase inhibitor (CP-TKI group); one presented in accelerated phase and four in blastic phase. Treatment, survival, responses, and tolerance were evaluated. All patients in the CP-TKI group received imatinib as their first TKI treatment. The 10-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and event-free survival (EFS) of TKI-treated group was 97%, 91.4%, and 72.3%, respectively. At 60 months, the rates of major molecular response were 81.2% and deep molecular response was 67.5%. The EUTOS long-term survival (ELTS) risk grouping did not predict OS, PFS, or EFS. The IMAFAIL risk groups were correlated with the risk of imatinib failure. Further studies are required to modify the existing risk assessment tools for children.

Keywords: Children; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Outcome; Risk assessment tools; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Imatinib Mesylate / therapeutic use
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive* / diagnosis
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive* / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive* / genetics
  • Prognosis
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Imatinib Mesylate