Predictors of Functioning and Recovery Among Men and Women Veterans with Schizophrenia

Community Ment Health J. 2023 Jan;59(1):110-121. doi: 10.1007/s10597-022-00979-x. Epub 2022 May 28.


Gender differences may play a role in functional outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia. To better understand differences, an exploratory secondary analysis was conducted using data from a large, multi-site study of individuals with schizophrenia in treatment at Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants completed surveys at baseline (n = 801; 734 men, 67 women) to assess demographics, symptoms, social supports, and recovery; and one year (n = 662; 604 men, 58 women) to assess quality of life and functioning. Hierarchical linear regressions examined interactions of baseline factors with functioning and quality of life. Women and men did not differ significantly in baseline social support, psychiatric symptoms, or recovery. Female gender predicted higher occupational functioning, while social functioning in men was inversely related to baseline symptom severity. Being married predicted higher quality of life for women, but not men. These findings may inform gender tailoring of services for schizophrenia.

Keywords: Gender; Schizophrenia; Veteran mental health; Women’s mental health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Schizophrenia* / diagnosis
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Veterans* / psychology