We demonstrate second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy excited by the ∼890-nm light frequency-doubled from a 137-fs, 19.4-MHz, and 300-mW all-fiber mode-locked laser centered at 1780 nm. The mode-locking at the 1.7-µm window is realized by controlling the emission peak of the gain fiber, and uses the dispersion management technique to broaden the optical spectrum up to 30 nm. The spectrum is maintained during the amplification and the pulse is compressed by single-mode fibers. The SHG imaging performance is showcased on a mouse skull, leg, and tail. Two-photon fluorescence imaging is also demonstrated on C. elegans labeled with green and red fluorescent proteins. The frequency-doubled all-fiber laser system provides a compact and efficient tool for SHG and fluorescence microscopy.