Chronic lung allograft dysfunction and restrictive allograft syndrome: are phenotypes robust and helpful?

Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2022 Jun 1;27(3):211-216. doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000962.


Purpose of review: New chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) consensus documents were published in 2019, defining four phenotypes; bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, restrictive allograft syndrome, mixed and undefined. Clearly, validation of these guidelines in a real life cohort is critical.

Recent findings: Indeed, validation has been performed recently, both after bilateral lung transplantation (LTx) and after single LTx illustrating that precise phenotyping based on pulmonary function alone can be difficult. Undertaking regular chest computed tomography scanning does appear very helpful in establishing the prognosis of the patients with CLAD.

Summary: Pulmonary function changes may not always identify the exact phenotype of CLAD and we provide further evidence for the important role of chest imaging at diagnosis and during the follow-up of patients with CLAD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allografts
  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans* / diagnostic imaging
  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans* / etiology
  • Graft vs Host Disease*
  • Humans
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Lung Transplantation* / methods
  • Phenotype