Re-emerging human monkeypox: A major public-health debacle

J Med Virol. 2022 Jun 1. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27902. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

A multicountry outbreak of the monkeypox virus has gained global attention. As of May 25, 250 confirmed human monkeypox cases have been reported globally. Monkeypox is caused by the Monkeypox virus, which belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus and Poxviridae family. Monkeypox is often a self-limiting infection, with symptoms lasting 2-4 weeks with the case fatality ratio around 3%-6%. Monkeypox is transmitted to humans by direct contact with an infected person or animal or contact with virus-contaminated material. Human monkeypox infections may lead to various medical complications such as fever, rash, and lymphadenopathies. Pneumonitis, encephalitis, sight-threatening keratitis, and subsequent bacterial infections are all possible complications of monkeypox. An antiviral agent developed to treat smallpox has also been approved for use in the treatment of monkeypox in the United States. Vaccines used in the smallpox eradication program also provided immunity to monkeypox. Newer vaccines have been developed, one of which has been approved for monkeypox prevention. In this study, we provide information about the recent outbreaks of human monkeypox, epidemiology, transmission pattern, possible diagnosis techniques, therapeutics, and available preventive strategies.

Keywords: diagnosis; human; monkeypox; re-emergence; treatment.