Current synthesis and characterization techniques for clay-based polymer nano-composites and its biomedical applications: A review

Environ Res. 2022 Sep;212(Pt E):113534. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113534. Epub 2022 May 30.


Clays and its composites have received considerable attention recently due to their low cost, wide availability and low environmental impact. The development of various preparation processes and applications of innovative polymer-nanoclay composites has been aided by recent breakthroughs in material technologies. Novel polymer-nanoclay composites with better qualities have been effectively adopted in a variety of fields, including aerospace, car, construction, petroleum, biomedical, and wastewater treatment, owing to innovative production processes. Due to their superior qualities, such as increased density, strength, relatively large surface areas, high elastic modulus, flame retardancy, and thermomechanical/optoelectronic/magnetic capabilities, these composites are acknowledged as potential advanced materials. Hence the present paper reviews the advances in synthesis and preparation of clay-polymer nanocomposites. In addition, this study also focuses on the various techniques used for clay-polymer nanocomposites characterization e.g. scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential colorimetric analysis (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) characterization. These advanced physico-mechanical and chemical characterization techniques would be effective in understanding the most appropriate application of clay polymer nanocomposites. In addition, the application of clay polymer nanocomposites in biomedical sector is also discussed in brief.

Keywords: Advanced characterization; Clay nanocomposite; Nanoclay; Nanocomposites; Nanomaterials; Polymer clay nanocomposites; Synthesis.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Clay
  • Nanocomposites* / chemistry
  • Polymers* / chemistry
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Thermogravimetry


  • Polymers
  • Clay