Maternal cigarette smoking and oral clefts: a population-based study

Am J Public Health. 1987 May;77(5):623-5. doi: 10.2105/ajph.77.5.623.


Analyses of 1984 data from the Maryland Birth Defects Reporting and Information System indicate that mothers of infants with oral clefts (cleft lip with or without cleft palate; and cleft palate) smoked more during pregnancy than mothers of infants with other defects (odds ratio OR of 2.56 and 2.39, respectively). There was a dose-response relation between the daily amount smoked and the risk of clefting. Adjustment for available confounding variables did not account for the association between smoking and oral clefts.

MeSH terms

  • Cleft Lip / etiology*
  • Cleft Palate / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking*