Modification of Chloroplast Antioxidant Capacity by Plastid Transformation

Methods Mol Biol. 2022:2526:3-13. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2469-2_1.


As immobile organisms, green plants must be frequently challenged by a broad range of environmental stresses. During these constantly adverse conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels can rise extremely in plants, leading to cellular dysfunction and cell death presumably due to irreversible protein overoxidation. Once considered merely as deleterious molecules, cells seek to remove them as efficiently as possible. To enhance ROS scavenging capacity, genes encoding antioxidative enzymes can be directly expressed from the genome of plastid (chloroplast), a major compartment for ROS production in photosynthetic organisms. Thus, overexpression of antioxidant enzymes by plastid engineering may provide an alternative to enhance plant's tolerance to stressful conditions specifically related with chloroplast-derived ROS. Here, we describe basic procedures for expressing glutathione reductase, a vital component of ascorbate-glutathione pathway, in tobacco via plastid transformation technology.

Keywords: Chloroplast; Glutathione reductase; Plastid transformation; ROS; Tobacco.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / metabolism
  • Chloroplasts* / genetics
  • Chloroplasts* / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plastids / genetics
  • Plastids / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species