Uric Acid and Hypertension: a Review of Evidence and Future Perspectives for the Management of Cardiovascular Risk

Hypertension. 2022 Sep;79(9):1927-1936. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.122.17956. Epub 2022 Jun 6.


Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism, and its increased serum levels have been directly involved in the pathogenesis and natural history of hypertension. The relationship between elevated uric acid and hypertension has been proven in both animals and humans, and its relevance is already evident in childhood and adolescent population. The mechanism responsible for blood pressure increase in hyperuricemic subjects is implicating both oxidative stress and intracellular urate activity with a primary involvement of XOR (xanthine-oxidoreductase activity). An increase in the relative risk of hypertension has been confirmed by genetic data and by large meta-analyses of epidemiological data. The effects of urate-lowering treatment on blood pressure control in patients with elevated serum uric acid has been investigated in a small number of reliable studies with a large heterogeneity of patient populations and study designs. However, 2 large meta-analyses suggest a significant effect of urate-lowering treatment on blood pressure, thus confirming the significant relationship between high serum urate and blood pressure. The future research should be focused on a more appropriate identification of patients with cardiovascular hyperuricemia by considering the correct cardiovascular threshold of serum urate, the time-course of uricemia fluctuations, and the identification of reliable markers of urate overproduction that could significantly clarify the clinical and therapeutic implications of the interaction between serum uric acid and hypertension.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseasess; hypertension; urate-lowering drugs; uric acid; xanthine-oxidoreductase.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Hyperuricemia* / complications
  • Hyperuricemia* / drug therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid


  • Uric Acid