Recommendations for Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging of Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: An Update from the American Society of Echocardiography, in Collaboration with the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2022 Jun;35(6):533-569. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2022.03.012.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of other potentially causative cardiac, systemic, syndromic, or metabolic diseases. Symptoms can be related to a range of pathophysiologic mechanisms including left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with or without significant mitral regurgitation, diastolic dysfunction with heart failure with preserved and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, autonomic dysfunction, ischemia, and arrhythmias. Appropriate understanding and utilization of multimodality imaging is fundamental to accurate diagnosis as well as longitudinal care of patients with HCM. Resting and stress imaging provide comprehensive and complementary information to help clarify mechanism(s) responsible for symptoms such that appropriate and timely treatment strategies may be implemented. Advanced imaging is relied upon to guide certain treatment options including septal reduction therapy and mitral valve repair. Using both clinical and imaging parameters, enhanced algorithms for sudden cardiac death risk stratification facilitate selection of HCM patients most likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

Keywords: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Ischemia; Noninvasive imaging; Sudden death.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology*
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnostic imaging
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / prevention & control
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • United States