Cerebral Effects of Neonatal Dysglycemia

Clin Perinatol. 2022 Jun;49(2):405-426. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2022.02.008. Epub 2022 Apr 21.


This article summarizes the available evidence reporting the relationship between perinatal dysglycemia and long-term neurodevelopment. We review the physiology of perinatal glucose metabolism and discuss the controversies surrounding definitions of perinatal dysglycemia. We briefly review the epidemiology of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in fetal, preterm, and term infants. We discuss potential pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to dysglycemia and its effect on neurodevelopment. We highlight current strategies to prevent and treat dysglycemia in the context of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Finally, we discuss areas of future research and the potential role of continuous glucose monitoring.

Keywords: Blood glucose; Brain; Hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia; Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Neurodevelopment; Perinatal; Preterm.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Endocrine System Diseases*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia* / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia* / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy


  • Blood Glucose