Abuse in the Continua: HIV Prevention and Care Outcomes and Syndemic Conditions Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men in the Southern United States

AIDS Behav. 2022 Nov;26(11):3761-3774. doi: 10.1007/s10461-022-03705-6. Epub 2022 Jun 4.


Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been implicated in HIV acquisition and worse HIV outcomes. Limited research focuses on the experiences of Black gay and bisexual men. Using data from cross-sectional surveys in Baltimore, Maryland, and Jackson, Mississippi, we analyzed the association between IPV victimization and HIV-related outcomes among 629 adult Black gay and bisexual men, among whom 53% self-reported a negative result at last HIV test. 40% of participants reported lifetime physical, sexual, and/or psychological IPV victimization, and 24% past-year victimization. Recent and lifetime IPV were associated with recent clinical diagnosis of STI (adjPrR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.08-1.92) and ART medication interruptions (adjPrR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.25-2.01), respectively. Physical IPV was inversely associated with current PrEP use (adjPrR: 0.35; 95%CI: 0.13-0.90). Recent IPV was independently correlated with depression symptomatology (adjPrR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.61-3.47) and hazardous alcohol use (adjPrR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.42-2.61), with evidence of interactions. IPV-HIV relationships were intersected by internalized stigma, housing instability, poverty, and lack of insurance. Tailored IPV services are urgently needed for comprehensive HIV services for Black gay and bisexual men in the U.S.

Keywords: Black or african american; Depression; Gay or bisexual; HIV; Hazardous alcohol use; Intimate partner violence; Syndemic.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology
  • Humans
  • Intimate Partner Violence*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*
  • Syndemic
  • United States / epidemiology