Infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the olfactory bulb in a mouse model of acute nasal inflammation

J Neuroimmunol. 2022 Jul 15:368:577897. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2022.577897. Epub 2022 May 23.


Chronic nasal inflammation induces robust olfactory bulb (OB) atrophy in mice. Here we examined initial events that occur in the OB after bilateral intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide, focusing on the olfactory nerve fibers and meninges. We analyzed the time course of OB and meninges inflammation using histological and biochemical approaches. Within 12 h, we observed increased chemokine expression and transient infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the OB, resulting in the development of pro-inflammatory status in the OB. Meningeal immunity was activated. Resident microglia produced anti-inflammatory cytokines within 24 h. These could be the initial events that lead to OB atrophy.

Keywords: Meninges; Nasal inflammation; Olfactory bulb; Olfactory nerve fibers; Peripheral immune cells; Resident microglia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atrophy / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides* / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides* / toxicity
  • Mice
  • Olfactory Bulb* / metabolism
  • Olfactory Bulb* / pathology


  • Lipopolysaccharides