Clinical features and complications of Loeys-Dietz syndrome: A systematic review

Int J Cardiol. 2022 Sep 1:362:158-167. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.05.065. Epub 2022 Jun 1.


Introduction: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder that arises from mutations altering the transforming growth factor β signalling pathway. Due to the recent discovery of the underlying genetic mutations leading to LDS, the spectrum of characteristics and complications is not fully understood.

Methods: Our search included five databases (Pubmed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EMBASE and google scholar) and included variations of "Loeys-Dietz Syndrome" as search terms, using all available data until February 2021. All study types were included. Three reviewers screened 1394 abstracts, of which 418 underwent full-text review and 392 were included in the final analysis.

Results: We identified 3896 reported cases of LDS with the most commonly reported features and complications being: aortic aneurysms and dissections, arterial tortuosity, high arched palate, abnormal uvula and hypertelorism. LDS Types 1 and 2 share many clinical features, LDS Type 2 appears to have a more aggressive aortic disease. LDS Type 3 demonstrated an increased prevalence of mitral valve prolapse and arthritis. LDS Type 4 and 5 demonstrated a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular involvement. Amongst 222 women who underwent 522 pregnancies, 4% experienced an aortic dissection and the peripartum mortality rate was 1%.

Conclusion: We observed that LDS is a multisystem connective tissue disorder that is associated with a high burden of complications, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing attempts to better characterise these features will allow clinicians to appropriately screen and manage these complications.

Keywords: Connective tissue disease; Loeys-Dietz syndrome; SMAD3; TGFB2; TGFB3; TGFBR1; TGFBR2.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Dissection* / diagnosis
  • Aortic Dissection* / epidemiology
  • Arteries
  • Connective Tissue Diseases*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Loeys-Dietz Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Loeys-Dietz Syndrome* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Pregnancy