Comparison Between Concentrated Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Transplantation as a Hip Preserving Surgery and Natural Course in Idiopathic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

Cureus. 2022 May 2;14(5):e24658. doi: 10.7759/cureus.24658. eCollection 2022 May.

Abstract

Purpose The purpose is to compare the therapeutic efficacy of concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate transplantation (CABMAT) with that of observation alone for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Methods This single-center study included patients with idiopathic ONFH that were either treated with CABMAT (CABMAT group) or managed through observation alone (observation group) over a >2-year follow-up period. The Japanese Investigation Committee classification was used to diagnose and classify ONFH. The collapse rates for stages 1 and 2 ONFH (i.e., pre-collapse stages) and the THA conversion rates were compared between the CABMAT and observation groups. Results The CABMAT and observation groups comprised 232 (mean follow-up: 8.2 years) and 106 (mean follow-up: 6.0 years) patients, respectively. No significant intergroup differences were noted in the stages, types, and associated factors of ONFH. The collapse rates for pre-collapse stages in the CABMAT and observation groups were 67.1% and 65.3%, respectively. For stage 1, the collapse rates were significantly lower in the observation group than in the CABMAT group (p<0.05). The overall THA conversion rates in the CABMAT and observation groups were 24.3% and 41.5%, respectively (p<0.0001). For ONFH of stages 3A and 3B (collapse stages), the THA conversion rates were significantly lower in the CABMAT group (p<0.05). Conclusion Collapse rates were significantly higher for stage 1 ONFH; for collapse stages, the THA conversion rates were significantly lower in the CABMAT group than in the observation group. Therefore, observation and CABMAT are recommended for ONFH of stage 1 and for ONFH of higher stages, respectively.

Keywords: concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate transplantation; core decompression; joint-preserving surgery; mesenchymal stem cells; osteonecrosis of the femoral head.